Circulatory System

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Circulatory System is responsible for delivering oxygen, water and nutrients to various body systems and cells while also transporting waste away (e.g. carbon dioxide). The circulatory system consists of the heart, blood vessels such as aorta, vein, ventricle, capillaries and blood itself.

The heart is essentially a muscle that pumps blood ensuring its movement throughout the body. The heart is located a bit to the left from the center of one’s chest. Well functioning circulatory system depends on a health heart, which in turn is dependent on regular exercises, healthy eating and not smoking.

The blood vessels carry blood throughout the body. The blood flows away from the heart through arteries. Arteries carry blood high in oxygen content. Veins on the other hand carry blood towards the heart. Capillaries are small blood vessels that connect arteries to veins. Nutrients, oxygen, water and carbon dioxide pass through the capillary walls.

The blood is the red substance that transports all the above throughout the body cells. The blood consists of red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets and plasma. Red blood cells carry oxygen from the lungs towards body cells and deliver carbon dioxide back. Carbon dioxide is than exhaled from the lungs. White blood cells help the body fight infections by destroying germs. Platelets are cells that stop bleeding by forming a natural seal to the damaged blood vessel. The red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets are formed by the bone marrow, which is a soft tissue in the bones. Plasma is the liquid part of the blood, produced in the liver, which makes about half of the blood content. All the above make up the circulatory system presented below:

circulatory system diagram

circulatory-system

Muscular System Diagram

The muscular system diagram depicts the anatomy of various human muscles including biceps, tripezius, deltoid, triceps, abdominis (abs) and other key muscle groups. While multiple groups exists, overall, there are 3 different types of muscle tissues: skeletal, visceral and cardiac.

Skeletal muscles are attached to the bones, often via a joint with muscles used to bring the bones closer together. They are usually attached to the skeleton. These muscles are also controlled consciously by a human while performing such tasks as running, speaking and typing. The cells in these skeletal muscles are made of multiple progenitor cells coming together into the long and strong fibers. The diagram below summarizes skeletal muscles.

Visceral muscles are the weakest of all muscles and are a part of the organs and body systems such as blood vessels and stomach. They are used to move matter through the organ (e.g. blood, food, etc) and appear smooth and uniform when looking at the microscope. They are unconsciously controlled by the brain.

Cardiac muscle is located in the heart and pumps blood through the arteries. Similarly to visceral muscles, it is not controlled consciously; instead it stimulates itself while adjusting to the hormone levels. Cardiac tissue is very strong.

muscular system diagram

muscular-system-diagram

Nerve Cell

Nerve Cell Diagram below is a typical illustration of this type of a human cell that makes up the cells in the nervous system. Nerve cell parts include nucleus, soma, dendrite, axon, myelin sheath, axon terminal, node of ranvier. This composition of the cell ensures that the neuron is functional with chemical signals transmitted to neighboring neurons.

All nerve cells respond to the external stimulus with an electric discharge that produces an electrical pulse of about 50-70 millivolts. This pulse is often referred to us an action potential. The electrical pulse travels down axon, which is the the fiber-like extension of the nerve cell. The speed of the impulse is about few tens of a meters per second and is a function of the fiber size. The transmission can be sent to a nearby nerve cell via a chemical neurotransmitter as soon as it gets to the axon terminal bundle. These types of nerve cells can be found all over the human body.

Nerve Cell

nerve-cell

Bike Frame Size and Seat Height Chart

Bike frame size and seat height chart below shows the dimensions of the frame size and seat height based on the inseam height. To choose the right bicycle and adjust the height of the saddle, first measure inseam height and then multiply the value by 1.08, which will give you the seat height (see the table below). This measurement can be used for both mountain and road bikes.

Getting the right bike size is important to maximize your speed, comfort and ability to handle, i.e. all the the things needed to ensure you get the best possible biking experience. It is important to use your personal measurement such as your height to choose the right bike frame and seat height. The bicycles are measured by the length of the seat tube, i.e. the tube where the saddle slides in to. Road bicycles are usually measured in cm while mountain bikes in inches. The diagram below will assist you with choosing the right bicycle regardless of the measurement system you are more accustomed to.

Bike Frame Size and Seat Height Chart

frame-size-seat-height-chart

Car Diagram

The Car Diagram below shows various parts of a car including the following components: engine, tires, brakes, lights, air bags, wheels, various systems (ignition, cooling and charging), transmission and others.

The heart of any vehicle is an engine At its core are the cylinders with pistons moving up and down. The cylinders can be arranged inline, in a V shape (arranged at an angle against each other) or horizontally. There are certain advantages to each car engine type depending on the vehicle. The engine also consists of the block, heads, valves and pistons.

The below diagram also shows the following components:
– Cooling system consisting of radiator, water pump, heater, hoses and thermostat
– Charging system consisting of the batter, alternator and regulator
– Ignition System that includes ignition wires, coil, spark plugs and distributor
– Brakes system made of disk brakes, drum brakes, anti-lock brakes, master cylinder and power booster.
Other auto parts are also illustrated on the below diagram.

Car Diagram

car-diagram

Plot Diagram

Plot Diagram illustrates the typical development of a book plot. It consists of the exposition, rising action, climax, falling action and resolution. The exposition is the beginning of the story where the setting and the characters are first introduced to the reader. The setting is where the story takes place. Rising action represents the development of the story through the series of conflicts faced by the main characters. This leads to the climax or the peak of the story, where the main events occur. The falling action are the events that lead to the end of the story, i.e. how everything gets settled and main characters ‘recover’ from the main conflict. The resolution is the end of the story.

Most novels and books follow the above plot structure since it is most natural for story telling and human comprehension. At the same time, there are a few books and movies nowadays that try to break through this traditional narrative approach to writing literature. The below plot not only shows the stages of the plot but also the degree / severity of the conflicts.

Plot Diagram

plot-diagram

Microscope Diagram

Microscope diagram below depicts parts of a typical light or optical microscope. Microscope uses lenses and light to optically increase the size of an image of whatever is being magnified. This is achieved through a magnifying glass, which varies in magnification and quality. Other parts of a microscope include eyepiece lens, tube, arm, base, illuminator, stage, rack stop, nosepiece and a diaphragm. Lets discuss each component in more detail.

The Base is the bottom of the microscope. Arms support the tube and are attached to the base. The tube is what integrates the objective lenses to the eyepiece lens. The latter is what a user sees through and is located at the top of the microscope. There are multiple objective lenses in a microscope that come in a variety of magnification powers. The final magnification is a multiple of the eyepiece lens and the objective lens (e.g. 10x eyepiece multiplied by 40x objective gives you 400x magnification). The lens with the lowest magnification are called short and with the highest are referred to as long. The objective lenses are switched with a revolving nosepiece also called a turret. the relevant proximity of these lenses to the slide is adjusted by the rack stop.

Illuminator is the the source of light or a mirror. The mirror microscope uses light from outside to display the image. The light comes from bottom of the stage, which is a platform where slides are inserted between stage clips.

How to Focus a Microscope:
1) Start with the lowest power objective lens.
2) Put the lens down close to the slide.
3) View through the eyepiece and focus upward until the image is sharp.
4) Switch objective lenses for greater magnification while adjusting the focus knob.

Microscope Diagram

microscope-diagram

Ear Diagram – Ear Anatomy

Ear Diagram below shows the various parts of a human ear. Ear anatomy includes external, middle and inner parts.
The outside portion, called the outer ear includes pinna, a ridged cartilage, through which sound travels into the short tube called the external auditory canal. This canal goes all the way to the eardrum.

Sound waves vibrate the eardrum connected to the cochlea, part of the inner ear. Sounds are then converted into nerve impulses that are further conducted to the brain. The semicircular canals are attached to the nerves and cochlea in the inner ear and are filled with fluid. Their function is to communicate the position of the head and body’s balance to the brain. The eustachian tube allows fluid to flow from the middle ear into the throat.

Essentially, a human ear is a system consisting of three organs that work together on hearing and balance in conjunction with the nervous system. The diagram below displays the human ear anatomy.

ear-diagram

Cell Diagram

Human cell as most other animal cells make up the structure of the body. Cell diagram below is representative of a typical human cell responsible for carrying out various bodily functions and processing nutrients into energy used to sustain itself. The diagram shows the following elements: nucleus, membrane, ribosomes, lysosome, cytoplasm and others.  Now lets explain what each of the cell parts is responsible for.

Cytoplasm is a part of the cell filled with cytosol liquid surrounding the nucleus. The nucleus is the center of the cell and acts as its control unit responsible for cell growth, division and maturity. Nuclear envelope is the membrane that surrounds the nucleus protecting the DNA from the rest of the cell.

The outside of the cell is protected by the plasma membrane. This membrane allows for passing of the nutrients and waste. An organ that ensures energy from nutrients can be consumed by the cell is called Mitochondria. The Golgi apparatus ensures molecules processed by the endoplasmic reticulum can be passed through the cell.
Peroxisomes and Lysosomes are responsible fore recycling of the worn-out cell parts while also breaking down bacteria and toxins. The cell diagram below lists various cell parts.

cell-diagram

Baby Month by Month – Pregnancy Stages

The Pregnancy stages diagrams below shows the development of the baby month by month in woman’s uterus. Month 1 marks the beginning of the first trimester when the ovulation and conception take place. During week 4, some pregnancy tests may detect conception. At this point, the embryo has just two cells. During the second month of pregnancy, women often feel fatique, morning sickness, hormonal fluctuations and other pregnancy-related symptoms The baby’s heart is beating and the brain is forming. During month 3, the embryo becomes a fetus and is about the size of a plum.

During the second trimester, starting month 4, the baby’s bones are hardening and the fetus is about 5 inches long and starts to resemble a human being as seen in the below diagram. Month 5, baby starts to kick and is developing hearing.

During the third trimester, the baby is fully forming with brain processing sights and sounds. The fetus is about 13 inches long. By month 8, the baby is fully formed and is increasing in weight. Baby’s lungs are almost fully developed. By month 9, the baby is ready to come out and meet the world! The month-by-month baby diagram shows the development of a baby and growth of mother’s belly.

baby-month-by-month

Human Organs – Body Organs Systems

Human Organs make up the six key body systems. These are the skeletal system, muscular system, nervous system, digestive system, respiratory system and circulatory system.  Lets explain how each of these play a role in sustaining and functioning of the human body.

Skeletal system provides structure to the body and protects internal organs. It is made of bones, skull and skeleton. The muscular system supports the body and allows it to move. Biceps and triceps are examples of muscles found in this system. The nervous system controls thought, sensation, movement and virtually all body functions. The key part in this is played by the brain.

Digestive system breaks down food and absorbs nutrients. It consists of the stomach, small and large intestines and other parts. The respiratory system takes oxygen and releases carbon dioxide through lungs. Finally the circulatory system with heart at its core transports oxygen, nutrients and other substances to cells and carries away waste.

The below diagram displays where each of these organ systems is located in the human body.

Body Organs Systems

Human Body – Human Anatomy

Human Body Anatomy is one the key areas of study in medical science. Understanding human anatomy is essential not only for medical professionals but also for general public. The diagram below shows various key organs and parts of the human body and is a great learning resource for kids and adults alike.

Human anatomy can be studied on a macro and a micro level. The macro view is called gross anatomy while micro is referred to as histology. In gross anatomy, the human body is studied through systematic and regional methods. Systematic looks at the human body through the lenses of different systems (e.g. circulatory, nervous, etc) while regional studies individual regions (or parts) of the body. Systematic is a more scientific approach as one gets to learn how various organs in the system interact with one another. The anatomy diagram that you see below simply lists various organs such as brain, heart, kidneys, liver, intestines and is more in line with the regional approach.

Human Body

Digestive System Diagram

Digestive System is one of the key body systems, responsible for processing nutrients in food and ensuring the body receives enough energy to sustain itself and grow. As shown in the below diagram, human digestive system consists of the following parts: mouth, throat, stomach, intestines, bladder, rectum, anus, liver, colon, and other organs. Now lets explain what each organ is responsible for in the system.

Mouth is responsible for food intake and initial digestion with chewing and saliva beginning the food breakdown. The food then travels through the throat (pharynx) to the esophagus, which is a muscular tube-like organ connected to the stomach. Esophagus has a special valve, which prevents food from going backwards.

Most of the digestion happens at the stomach. Stomach acid breaks down the food into a paste-like substance. This substance then moves into the small intestine, where part of the food is still being broken down while most of the nutrients get absorbed into the blood. Pancreas, liver and gallbladder all support the functioning of the small intestine. The remains of the processed food move into the large intestine (colon). This is where stool is formed and processed. From a liquid like state, the stool hardens as water is further absorbed. The waste is then moved into the rectum. The digestive system diagram below shows the various organs in the described system.

Digestive System Diagram

Also see other human organ systems

Plant Cell Diagram

Plant Cell is a basic block of the plant structure. The plant cell diagram below displays various parts of the cell including nucleus, cytoskeleton, cell wall, membrane, centrosome, central vacuole, chloroplast and others. Lets explain what each component is responsible for:

The nucleus is the commanding center of the cell controlling various functions of the cell and containing DNA. The nucleus is covered by the nuclear membrane. This is different from the cell membrane, which is a protein layer on the inside of the cell wall. The cell wall is a thick membrane that allows for passing of the nutrients and forms the structure of the plant together with other cells. The jelly material outside of the nucleus is called cytoplasm.

The key difference between plant cells and animals cells is the process of photosynthesis. Plant cells are able to convert sunlight, water and carbon dioxide into sugars (energy), oxygen and water. Photosynthesis takes place in the chloroplasts, which contains chlorophyll. Chlorophyll is a molecule responsible for this process and is usually green in color. The central vacuole stores sugars and water for cell’s use.

Plant cell diagram below lists various cell parts and explains some of their functionality.

Plant Cell Diagram

Smiley Faces

Smiley Faces (often referred to as a smiley or a happy face) are a visual representation of a smiling person widely used on the Internet to reflect one’s emotion using only two characters. Since its introduction in 1963, the yellow happy face has become a pop culture icon. In 1982, smileys have entered the Internet with Scott Fahlman using it to convey jokes and emotions with his peers. The most common representations are : ) and :- ) Interestingly, the smiley has first appeared in Robert Herrick’s poem To Fortune in 1648, where he included a sentence ‘Upon my ruines (smiling yet :).

Since their introduction the smileys have expanded to convey other emotions, hence the other name, emoticon. Now smileys represent not only happiness but also sadness and a whole array of other emotions. Some of these are captured in the image below. With introduction of social media, the use of smiley faces have exploded with many platforms and apps offering a variety of emoticon options. There are also Unicode smileys going back to Windows 95 that can be accessed with various hotkeys on a Windows platform. Many smartphones including iPhone have adopted the use of happy faces in their text apps.

 smiley-faces

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs (also known as Maslow Pyramid) is a psychology framework developed by Maslow to explain various human needs and basis for motivation. The pyramid is one of the founding blocks of the theory of human motivation widely used in psychology and business. It divides all human needs into 3 buckets: basic needs, psychological needs and self-fulfillment needs.

The basic needs include physiological (food, water, warmth and rest) and safety, sense of security and protection. These are the founding blocks that are a must before more high level needs can be achieved. Moving up the pyramid, one must achieve a sense of belongingness and love, which comes with intimate relationships and friendships. Esteem needs come next. These come from prestige and feeling of accomplishment. At the top of the hierarchy is self-actualization, which is achieving one’s full potential including creative activities.

The key concept behind the pyramid is the fact that one can only move up, provided that the more basic needs are satisfied. For example, if an employee feels that their job is under a threat, Maslow’s theory suggests that this employee will be less productive, because they cannot realize higher level potential due to the safety concerns.

Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs

SWOT Analysis

SWOT analysis is one of the most widely used business frameworks that takes into account strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats facing a company. This is a useful brainstorming tool for development of a business strategy that puts an emphasis on both internal and external factors facing a company.

One would start with analyzing company’s strengths, i.e. what the company is good at (example: internal capabilities, technology). Then it is important to look for weaknesses (example: history of poor marketing campaigns). Opportunities would include new areas where company could compete, be it new products or markets. Finally threats are external factors that may damage company’s competitive position (example: competitors, regulations). See a sample swot diagram below.

SWOT is also one of the key techniques in project management used for risk identification and analysis. The output of the swot analysis exercise is used to prepare risk management plans and form bases for qualitative and quantitative risk evaluation.

swot analysis