History Of Atomic Structure

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History Of Atomic Structure

The concept of the atom as an indivisible building block of matter was recorded as early as the 5th century BCE by the ancient Greek philosophers Democritus and Leucippus. However, it was not until the 19th century that the modern concept of the atom began to take shape. The idea of an indivisible particle was further elaborated upon and explored by a number of scientists and philosophers, including Galileo, Newton, Boyle, Lavoisier, and Dalton.

John Dalton, an English chemist and meteorologist, is credited with the first modern atomic theory based on his experiments with atmospheric gases. Dalton’s atomic theory contained the following ideas: all atoms of a given element are identical, the atoms of different elements vary in mass and size, atoms are indestructible, and chemical reactions may result in their rearrangement, but not their creation or destruction. Dalton also outlined a law of multiple proportions, which described how reactants will combine in set ratios.

In the late 19th century, J.J. Thomson discovered the electron, which led to the development of the first atomic model, known as the “plum pudding” model. This model suggested that atoms were made up of a positively charged substance with negatively charged electrons embedded in it. In 1911, Ernest Rutherford conducted the gold foil experiment, which led to the discovery of the nucleus. This discovery led to the development of the Rutherford atomic model, which suggested that atoms consisted of a small, dense, positively charged nucleus surrounded by negatively charged electrons.

In 1913, Niels Bohr proposed a new atomic model that incorporated the idea of quantized energy levels. Bohr’s model suggested that electrons could only occupy certain energy levels, and that they could move between these levels by absorbing or emitting energy in the form of photons. This model was later refined by other scientists, including Werner Heisenberg and Erwin Schrödinger, who